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        2021技術進步獎 | 高速鐵路噪聲測量、預測方法以及控制關鍵技術及應用

        2022-08-16 10:14:35來源:中國環保產業協會 閱讀量:17738

        導讀:高速鐵路噪聲測量、預測方法以及控制關鍵技術及應用項目從噪聲源識別-預測-評價-控制等四個層次建立了高速鐵路噪聲控制完整研究體系。
          在16位院士、30多家提名機構和100余位提名和評審專家的大力支持下,2021年“環境技術進步獎”圓滿完成,31個項目獲得一等獎和二等獎。
         
          據不完全統計,2021年的獲獎成果包括國際專利15項、發明專利471項、實用新型專利等其他知識產權550項;2018-2020年,相關產值高達500億元,實現利潤100億元,充分體現了我國環境技術創新跑出的加速度。
         
          我會將陸續發布獲獎項目簡介,供社會各界人士參考。
         
          (注:所有發布材料均由獲獎單位提供。)
         
          項目簡介
         
          隨著我國高速鐵路路網密集化及列車高速化,噪聲問題已成為制約高速鐵路提速、“走出去”及綠色交通發展的重要因素,而強氣動激擾、多噪聲源作用下實現高速鐵路噪聲有效控制是公認的技術難題。
         
          本項目從噪聲源識別-預測-評價-控制等四個層次建立了高速鐵路噪聲控制完整研究體系,取得如下創新性研究成果:(1)研發基于去多普勒效應算法和解卷積算法的高速鐵路運動聲源識別技術,低頻識別下限拓寬為200Hz,空間分辨率提升10倍以上,識別動態范圍提升至10~15dB,滿足高速鐵路噪聲寬頻以及多運動聲源特性分析的實際需求,大幅提升了識別精度,已全面應用于多項高速鐵路重大綜合試驗;(2)基于聲學波動理論、運動聲源理論以及聲源指向性研究成果,研究構建多聲源等效理論模型,解決聲源高速運動引起的計算結果偏差;(3)針對高速列車速度快、通過時間短、噪聲強度大、噪聲受輪軌狀態影響大等特點,研發了對列車通過聲信號捕捉能力強、精準定位快、自動化程度高并實現全壽命周期跟蹤測量的集輪軌狀態-噪聲同步檢測多功能遠程實時監測系統;(4)提出350km/h以上聲屏障氣動荷載設計曲線,基于高速鐵路多聲源特征,從高速鐵路聲屏障高度、吸聲結構以及聲屏障截面形式等方面提出多種聲屏障優化設計方法,為聲屏障結構力學和聲學設計奠定技術基礎。
         
          項目研究成果為《中華人民共和國環境噪聲污染防治法》《環境影響評價技術導則 聲環境》《環境影響評價技術導則 城市軌道交通》等國家相關法律規范制修訂提供了技術支撐。科技成果鑒定結論為總體成果達到國際先進水平,部分創新成果達到國際領先水平。
         
          項目成果已用于復興號高速動車組整車降噪設計以及高速鐵路聲屏障氣動效應與聲學設計;高速鐵路噪聲預測及評價方法已轉化為行業技術標準,指導高速鐵路聲環境影響預測、評價及控制。
         
          獲獎感言:
         
          劉蘭華 中國鐵道科學研究院集團有限公司   研究員
         
          噪聲問題是發展高速鐵路面臨的最重要、最關鍵環境影響問題。本項目結合我國高速鐵路噪聲控制需求與實踐,針對高速鐵路噪聲源識別、測試方法與控制目標、預測模型建立及參數確定、聲屏障控制技術等方面存在的難題,提出符合我國高速鐵路特點的噪聲源識別、聲環境影響預測評價方法及控制技術,項目成果已直接用于國家及行業標準制定部門、高速鐵路設計與環境影響評價單位以及高速動車組制造商等,為高速鐵路噪聲控制提供了強有力的技術支撐,也為后續推動“CR450科技創新工程”實施、推進更高速度高速鐵路發展奠定了堅實的技術基礎。
         
          結語
         
          為鼓勵技術創新,建立以企業為主體、市場為導向、產學研用相結合的環境技術創新體系,經國家科學技術獎勵工作辦公室備案(社會科技獎勵編號0299號),中國環境保護產業協會于2018年設立了面向全國、面向產業的“環境技術進步獎”。該獎項聚焦環境應用技術成果,不授予環境學科基礎研究、環境管理研究等軟科學成果。
         
          歡迎各界環保人士,積極參與2022年度環境技術進步獎相關工作。(注:原文有刪改)
         
          原標題:2021技術進步獎 | 高速鐵路噪聲測量、預測方法以及控制關鍵技術及應用——中國鐵道科學研究院集團有限公司等

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